Bacterial Motility in 3D Porous Media
Direct imaging of E. coli in a 3D porous medium reveals switching between two modes of motion: hopping, in which the cell moves through extended, directed paths through the pore space, and trapping, in which the cell is confined for extended periods of time.
This movie shows our direct imaging of E. coli with fluorescently-labeled flagella (magenta) in a 3D porous medium. Our experiments show that the cell becomes trapped when it encounters an obstruction; however, the flagella continue to rotate as a coherent bundle for much longer than the unconfined run duration. The cell continues to reorient itself while trapped, eventually enabling the flagella to unbundle and re-bundle in a different configuration, which enables the cell to escape its trap and continue to hop through the pore space in a different direction.
3D Dyanamics of Mammalian Cells
MCF10A cells can generate enough force to push their way through the invisible soft granular microgel material that surrounds them.
MCF10A cells embedded in LLS 3D growth media extend long filopodia, pushing through the invisible packed microgels.
Uptake of dyes simulates potential assay for combinatorial drug screening. Liver spheroids were 3D printed in an array near dye-eluting polymer films.
Cancer spheroids 3D printed directly into liquid-like solid growth media and monitored in time-lapse. This assay can be employed to do spheroid culture and screening of a patient's cells for personalized medicine applications.
3D printing into jammed microgel media allows complex paths to be followed while making nested thin-shelled structures. The Matryoshka dolls shown here have smooth curved shapes, sharp corners, and seamless joining between bases and tops as they are printed one piece at a time.
3D printing in the jammed microgel medium allows for complex structures to be generated without the restrictions associated with ink solidification.